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Softactivity Activity Monitor 87 37



Although rubidium is monoisotopic, rubidium in the Earth's crust is composed of two isotopes: the stable 85Rb (72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%).[13] Natural rubidium is radioactive, with specific activity of about 670 Bq/g, enough to significantly expose a photographic film in 110 days.[14][15] Thirty additional rubidium isotopes have been synthesized with half-lives of less than 3 months; most are highly radioactive and have few uses.[16]




Softactivity Activity Monitor 87 37



The slight radioactivity of rubidium was discovered in 1908, but that was before the theory of isotopes was established in 1910, and the low level of activity (half-life greater than 1010 years) made interpretation complicated. The now proven decay of 87Rb to stable 87Sr through beta decay was still under discussion in the late 1940s.[34][35]


Option: 01 In combination with a warning sign, a Supplementary Distance (W7-3aP) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) with the legend NEXT XX MILES may be used to indicate the length of highway over which a work activity is being conducted, or over which a condition exists in the TTC zone.


02 In long TTC zones, Supplementary Distance plaques with the legend NEXT XX MILES may be placed in combination with warning signs at regular intervals within the zone to indicate the remaining length of highway over which the TTC work activity or condition exists.


Guidance: 04 When used in TTC zones, the Supplementary Distance plaque with the legend NEXT XX MILES should be placed below the initial warning sign designating that, within the approaching zone, a temporary work activity or condition exists.


Wearable contact lenses which can monitor physiological parameters have attracted substantial interests due to the capability of direct detection of biomarkers contained in body fluids. However, previously reported contact lens sensors can only monitor a single analyte at a time. Furthermore, such ocular contact lenses generally obstruct the field of vision of the subject. Here, we developed a multifunctional contact lens sensor that alleviates some of these limitations since it was developed on an actual ocular contact lens. It was also designed to monitor glucose within tears, as well as intraocular pressure using the resistance and capacitance of the electronic device. Furthermore, in-vivo and in-vitro tests using a live rabbit and bovine eyeball demonstrated its reliable operation. Our developed contact lens sensor can measure the glucose level in tear fluid and intraocular pressure simultaneously but yet independently based on different electrical responses.


Among various biomarkers, glucose is particularly important for the diagnosis and management of diabetes. Currently, the finger prick method is commonly used daily by diabetes patients for monitoring the glucose level in blood, but the method accompanies pain and inconvenience during sampling19. Instead of detecting the glucose in blood, monitoring the glucose level in other body fluids (for example, urine, saliva, intestinal fluid or tear fluid) may enable noninvasive diagnosis and diabetes control20. Tear fluid, in particular, has emerged as a promising body fluid for continuous monitoring of glucose level by recently developed sensor designs21. Another significant health indicator that can be obtained from human eyes is the intraocular pressure. Elevated intraocular pressure is the largest risk factor for glaucoma17,22,23,24, a leading cause of human blindness. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma is important, which is however challenging due to the slow and symptomless progression of the disease.


We have demonstrated a wearable smart contact lens with highly transparent and stretchable sensors that continuously and wirelessly monitors glucose and intraocular pressure, which are the risk factors associated with diabetes and glaucoma, respectively.


In conclusion, compared to the existing contact lens sensors made of conventional opaque materials, the breakthrough was made by the hybrid structure of 1D and 2D nanomaterials, which adds reliability and robustness to the high conductivity, flexibility and transparency of each material. Among the three elements in the demonstrated RLC circuit, R responds to molecular binding, whereas L and C vary with structural changes of the device, thus enabling the detection of intraocular pressure. Here, the simple pyrene-chemistry allows selective binding of target biomarkers onto graphene, which can be tuned for a wide range of analytes. Furthermore, the change of reflection coefficient by R, and the shift of resonance frequency by L and C operates independently of each other. Therefore, this multiplexed contact lens sensor indicates substantial promise for next-generation ocular diagnostics, which not only monitors disease-related biomarkers but also evaluates ocular and overall health conditions of our body.


Safety: The reported adverse effects of Garcinia cambogia and HCA are generally mild and include headache, nausea, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms [128,130,132]. However, dietary supplements containing Garcinia cambogia have been implicated in three cases of mania, which might have been caused by the serotonergic activity of HCA [134]. Symptoms included grandiosity (an unrealistic sense of superiority), irritability, pressured speech, and decreased need for sleep. Reports have also described 10 cases of liver toxicity, resulting in one death and two liver transplants, in people taking products containing Garcinia cambogia [43,135-137]. In most of these cases, the products contained other botanical ingredients and minerals as well, so the toxicity cannot be definitively attributed to Garcinia cambogia. Because all clinical trials of Garcinia cambogia and HCA have been short, its long-term safety is unknown.


Scientists have not determined the exact mechanism whereby hoodia might suppress appetite. A glycoside commonly called P57, which may have central nervous system activity [181], is widely believed to be the main active ingredient, although not all researchers agree [16,182].


Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), and it is added to some foods as a flavoring agent [16,204]. In vitro and animal studies suggest that raspberry ketone might help prevent weight gain by increasing fatty acid oxidation, suppressing lipid accumulation, and inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity [16]. Although it has been touted on the Internet and national television as an effective way to burn fat, little evidence exists to support this claim.


White kidney bean or bean pod (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a legume that is native to Mexico, Central America, and South America and is cultivated worldwide [140]. Phaseolus vulgaris extract is an ingredient in some weight-loss dietary supplements marketed as carbohydrate- or starch-absorption "blockers." Laboratory research indicates that Phaseolus vulgaris extract inhibits alpha-amylase activity, so experts have hypothesized that the plant interferes with the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract [16,211-214]. Phaseolus vulgaris might also act as an appetite suppressant [211,215].


Some ingredients in weight-loss dietary supplements can interact with certain medications. For example, glucomannan and guar gum might decrease the absorption of many drugs that are taken orally [147,179]. Glucomannan has been reported to lower blood glucose levels [139] and, therefore, could interact with diabetes medications [147]. Chitosan might potentiate the anticoagulant effects of warfarin [239]. Green tea could interact with chemotherapy drugs [240,241]. Garcinia cambogia was associated with serotonin toxicity in a patient taking the supplement together with two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications [242]. Other ingredients, such as caffeine and bitter orange, could have an additive effect if taken with other stimulants. Bitter orange has also been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 activity, leading to increased blood levels of certain drugs, such as cyclosporine and saquinavir [43].


As this fact sheet shows, the evidence supporting the use of dietary supplements to reduce body weight and stimulate weight loss is inconclusive and unconvincing, and the cost of these products can be considerable [6,14,29,41]. The best way to lose weight and keep it off is to follow a sensible approach that incorporates a healthy eating plan, reduced caloric intake, and moderate physical activity under the guidance of a heath care provider. For some individuals with a high BMI who have additional health risks, physicians may prescribe adjunctive treatments, including FDA- approved prescription medications or bariatric surgery, in addition to lifestyle modifications [7]. Lifestyle changes that promote weight loss might also improve mood and energy levels and lower the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers [5].


The Weight Management webpage from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health, provides several helpful publications on weight control, obesity, physical activity, and related nutritional issues.


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